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Melatonin is a naturally occurring compound found in animals, plants. In mammals, melatonin is secreted into the blood by the pineal gland in the brain. Melatonin Known as the "hormone of darkness", has been studied for the treatment of cancer, immune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, depression, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), circadian rhythm sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction.

Fertility and Melatonin

A research team in Italy has found that melatonin supplementation in the evening in perimenopausal women produces an improvement in thyroid function and gonadotropin levels, as well as restoring fertility and menstruation and preventing the depression associated with the menopause. However, at the same time, some resources warn women trying to conceive not to take a melatonin supplement. One study reported that three mg of melatonin taken in the evening raised prolactin levels in six out of seven women. Melatonin also lowers FSH levels. It is believed that these hormonal changes could in some women impair fertility.

Mood disorders and Melatonin

Melatonin has been shown to be effective in treating one form of depression and seasonal affective disorder, and is being considered for bipolar and other disorders in which circadian disturbances are involved. It has been observed that bipolar disorder might have, as a "trait marker" (something that is characteristic of being bipolar, that does not change with state).

Cancer and Melatonin

A systematic review of unblinded clinical trials involving a total of 643 cancer patients using melatonin found a reduced incidence of death. Another clinical trial is due to be completed in 2012. Melatonin levels at night are reduced to 50% by exposure to a low-level incandescent bulb for only 39 minutes, and it has been suspected that women with the brightest bedrooms have an increased risk for breast cancer. Reduced melatonin production has been proposed as a likely factor in the significantly higher cancer rates in night workers.

Gallbladder stones and Melatonin

Melatonin presence in the gallbladder has many protective properties, such as converting cholesterol to bile, preventing oxidative stress, and increasing the mobility of gallstones from the gallbladder. It also decreases the amount of cholesterol produced in the gallbladder by regulating the cholesterol that passes through the intestinal wall. In guinea pigs, melatonin administration restored normal function by reducing inflammation after induced Cholecystitis, whether administered before or after onset of inflammation.

Obesity and Melatonin

Melatonin is involved in energy metabolism and body weight control in small animals. Many studies show that chronic melatonin supplementation in drinking water reduces body weight and abdominal fat in experimental animals. It is interesting to note that the weight loss effect of melatonin does not require the subject to eat less and to be physically more active.

Melatonin and Protection from Radiation

Both animal and human studies have shown melatonin to be potentially radioactive protective purpose. The mechanism of melatonin in protection against ionizing radiation is thought to involve scavenging of free radicals. It is estimated that nearly 70% of biological damage caused by ionizing radiation is attributable to the free radicals. Melatonin has been suggested as a radioactive protective agent, with the proposed advantages of being broadly protective, readily available, orally self-administered, and without major known side effects.

Melatonin and Disease and Immune System

Melatonin may reduce damage caused by some types of Parkinson's disease and may play a role in preventing cardiac arrhythmia and may increase longevity. Melatonin may enhance cytokine production, and by doing this counteract acquired immunodeficiency. Some studies also suggest that melatonin might be useful fighting infectious disease including viral, such as HIV, and bacterial infections, and potentially in the treatment of cancer.

Melatonin and Autism and ADHD

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have lower than normal levels of melatonin. A 2008 study found that unaffected parents of individuals with ASD also have lower melatonin levels, and that the deficits were associated with low activity of the ASMT gene, which encodes the last enzyme of melatonin synthesis. ADHD Research shows that after melatonin is administered to ADHD patients on methylphenidate, the time needed to fall asleep is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the effects of the melatonin after three months showed no change from its effects after one week of use.

Melatonin and Anti- Aging

Aging Research has supported the anti-aging properties of melatonin. Younger children hit their peak melatonin production at night, and some researchers believe that the level of melatonin peaks earlier as we get older. This may explain why older adults go to bed earlier, wake up earlier, and have more sleep problems than children do. Some studies have shown that melatonin plays a crucial part in the aging process and that it may act as an anti-aging agent when taken by older adults.


The Mother of all Steroid Hormones

Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the 'mother steroid compound' because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body. This includes cortisone, Progesterone, oestrogen, testosterone and DHEA. Although it's the precursor of all steroid hormones, Pregnenolone itself is not a steroid hormone. Instead, Pregnenolone is made from cholesterol in the cells of both the adrenal gland and the central nervous system. Inside each cell there are 1000's of mitochondria (tiny power plants) and it is inside these mitochondria that Pregnenolone is produced.

Pregnenolone and Aging

Age also plays its part. As we grow older, so the amount of Pregnenolone that we produce reduces. By age 70, Pregnenolone levels have typically declined by as much as 60%. Stress, depression, hypothyroidism and toxin exposure also lead to reduced levels. And with reducing levels, comes the need to supplement the body’s supply.

Pregnenolone and Memory Enhancement

It has long been reported that one of the leading benefits of Pregnenolone supplementation is the enhancement of memory, well in excess of the memory enhancing effects of other substances. Its role in memory enhancement appears to lie in its ability to assist in the acquisition of knowledge and the long term memory of learned behaviour and it does all of this at lower doses than those required by other steroids and steroid precursors such as DHEA. Indeed, in a clinical study carried out in 1995, Pregnenolone was shown to be a potent memory enhancer – possibly 100 times more effective than DHEA. 

Pregnenolone and Energy

Energy levels are also boosted because Pregnenolone protects the energy producing mitochondria in our cells from potentially damaging toxins. This is because Pregnenolone enhances the activity of the cytochrome P450 detoxifying enzymes. These enzymes assist our cells, particularly those in the liver and the brain, to detoxify a whole range of toxins.

Pregnenolone and Stress

Pregnenolone may help to reduce your stress levels as it is thought that Pregnenolone may play a part in the neuro-endocrine response to stress. It may act to reduce the age-increasing effects of cortisol and induce a better state of relaxation . A study of aeroplane pilots subjected to stressful situations also revealed that 25mg of Pregnenolone taken twice a day improved performance without causing adverse side effects.

Pregnenolone as an Anti-Depressant and Mood Enhancer

Research has revealed that people currently suffering from depression or with a history of depression have significantly lower levels of Pregnenolone in the fluid around the brain than those found in healthy people. Indeed, those people with active depression were found to have lower levels of Pregnenolone than those with a history of depression.

Pregnenolone and Arthritis

Many arthritis sufferers find Pregnenolone particularly effective in treating the inflammation in their joints that they experience with the disease. Studies have confirmed the effects of Pregnenolone on arthritis. In one trial 6 out of 11 people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis experienced moderate to marked improvement in joint pain and mobility after receiving intramuscular injections of 50-600mg of Pregnenolone daily. In another study involving 13 osteoarthritis sufferers, Pregnenolone reduced pain and improved mobility in 7 of the patients. The pain reoccurred once the Pregnenolone therapy was stopped. Another study highlighted the substantial benefits of Pregnenolone therapy patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis and scleroderma.

Pregnenolone and Women’s Health

Pregnenolone may offer many post-menopausal women a natural oestrogen replacement therapy. This is because Pregnenolone converts into DHEA which in turn converts into oestrogens. Pregnenolone can also provide a natural source for progesterone, another important hormone for female reproductive health, and one which is particularly useful in controlling PMS. The added advantage of Pregnenolone therapy when compared with DHEA treatment is that there is a reduced risk of experiencing distressing masculinizing side effects such as increasing facial hair because Pregnenolone is less likely to lead to an increase in testosterone levels.

Pregnenolone and Nerve Regeneration

Various parts of nerve cells are insulated by a membrane called the myelin sheath which acts to prevent “short circuiting” or the loss of neural transmission. Research involving mice has demonstrated that either Pregnenolone or progesterone supplementation promotes myelin formation during nerve regeneration. It maybe therefore that Pregnenolone therapy has a place in the treatment of diseases involving demyelination, such as multiple sclerosis.

What Is DHEA?


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone that's produced naturally by the adrenal glands. The body converts DHEA into male and female sex hormones, such as oestrogen and testosterone DHEA supplements are made from a substance called diosgenin, which is found in soy and wild yams. Wild yam cream and supplements are often touted as natural sources of DHEA, but the body can't convert wild yam to DHEA on its own-it must be done in a laboratory.

DHEA and Health

DHEA levels typically peak by the time people are in their 20s and decline with age, which is why there has been considerable interest in DHEA and its role in aging. What's more, low levels of DHEA have been detected in some people with type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis and kidney disease. Some individuals use DHEA supplements in order to protect against these and other health conditions.

DHEA and Osteoporosis

Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia, according to the NIH. Indeed, a 2002 study from the Chinese Medical Journal deemed DHEA safe and effective in the treatment of osteoporosis. After six months of treatment with DHEA, 44 male osteoporosis patients experienced a significant increase in bone mineral density (compared to 42 male osteoporosis patients assigned to a control group for the same time period).

DHEA and Lupus

Studies indicate that DHEA may enhance mental function and increase bone mass in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease affecting connective  tissue  For a 2007 report in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, scientists analyzed seven clinical trials (with a total of 842 participants) that tested the use of DHEA in treating SLE. The report's authors concluded that DHEA may have a "modest but clinically significant impact" on health-related quality of life in the short-term for people with SLE.

DHEA and Fertility

The investigators at  have been using  dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA now for a number of years very successfully in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), whether their ovarian impairment is due to advanced age or premature ovarian aging (POA). In doing so, they have been able to demonstrate that in such women DHEA supplementation has quite remarkable beneficial effects, such as:  Increased egg (oocyte) and embryo count  Improved egg and embryo quality,  Speeds up time to pregnancy in fertility treatment, Increases spontaneously conceived pregnancy, Improves IVF success rates ,decreases spontaneous miscarriage rates  According to the American Pregnancy Association, six million women a year deal with infertility. Now, a Tel Aviv University study is giving new hope to women who want to conceive. Prof. Adrian Shulman of Tel Aviv University's Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Meir Medical Centre has found a statistical connection between supplement DHEA, and successful pregnancy rates in women undergoing treatment for infertility.

In the first controlled study on the effects of the supplement, Prof. Shulman found that women being treated for infertility who also received supplements of DHEA were three times more likely to conceive than women being treated without the additional drug. The results were recently published in AYALA, the journal of the Israeli Fertility Association.


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