Osteoporosis and Connective Tissue

Screening from Blood and Urine

There is a generalised concept that osteoporosis is due to deficiency in calcium, vitamin D, and or low oestrogen levels especially in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Evidence has emerged in recent years to suggest that the cause can also be found in deficiencies of other nutrients associated with bone
and connective tissue chemistry.

One of the most common deficiencies or imbalances is to be found in Copper and Zinc. Results from a study carried out by the University of
Northern Ireland found copper deficiency to be a major cause of osteoporosis. However copper deficiency may be due to an excess of Zinc and visa versa. Copper levels are also very much influenced by hormone levels and Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Normal adult levels of urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) suggest normal bone turnover. Moderate elevation of urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) suggests unbalanced bone re-modelling characteristic of osteoporosis.

Other nutrient deficiencies associated with osteoporosis are Magnesium, Manganese, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin D. It is interesting that deficiencies in these nutrients can also be associated with aches and pains in connective tissue, tendons muscles and ligaments, causing these tissues to be more susceptible to injury and inflammation as often found in fibromyalgia.

Osteoporosis Screen from Blood and Urine

From Blood Serum:

  • Enzymes
  • Alkaline
  • Phosphatase
  • Total and from bone.


  • Inorganic Phosphorus
  • Calcium
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc


  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin A (retinol)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Vitamin D3 (25-hydroxy D3)
  • Vitamin D2 (25-hydroxy D2)
  • Total Vitamin D (25-hydroxy)

From the Urine (24 hour collection):

  • N-terminal telopeptide
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium
  • Zinc

Examples of Patterns of excess and deficiency

Calcium deficiency:

  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Hyperactivity
  • Insomnia
  • High blood pressure
  • Palpitations
  • Numbness and Muscle cramps
  • Neuromuscular excitability

Calcium Excess:

  • Anorexia
  • Depression
  • Memory impairment
  • Muscle weakness

Zinc Deficiency:

  • Acne
  • Hair loss
  • Loss of taste
  • Depression
  • Memory loss
  • Eczema

Zinc Excess:

  • Anaemia
  • Copper deficiency
  • Lowered Immunity

Copper Deficiency:

  • Hair Loss
  • Anaemia
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • High cholesterol

Copper Excess:

  • Muscle and Joint Pain
  • Depression
  • Irritability and nervousness
  • Hormone imbalance

Magnesium Deficiency:

  • PMS
  • Neuromuscular irritability
  • Low blood pressure
  • Insomnia
  • ME

Manganese Deficiency:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Glucose Intolerance
  • High Cholesterol
  • Hearing loss

Vitamin D Deficiency:

  • Fatigue
  • Muscle pain and weakness
  • Joint pain
  • HBP
  • Restless sleep
  • Poor Concentration
  • Headaches

Vitamin A:

  • Acne
  • Loss of Smell
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Weight Loss
  • more prone to Infections

Vitamin C:

  • Joint pain
  • Easy Bruising
  • Tiredness
  • Depression
  • Anaemia

N-terminal telopeptide:

Moderate elevation of urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) suggests unbalanced bone re-modelling characteristic of osteoporosis.